Thomas Miller

  • commented on Why the Movie Downsizing Should be Seen by Everyone Who Cares for the Environment? 2018-05-02 03:01:55 -0700
    Here is a way to reduce the global warming: In a New York Times article “How Oman’s Rocks Could Help Save The Planet” at
    rocks.html there is discussion of how crushed rock, that reacts with carbon dioxide, could take carbon dioxide out of the air. South Africa is also thinking of using this method with rock dug out in mining operations. One plan is to spread rock dust along the shores, but one could using floating gel with rock dust in that dissolves in the more acidic ocean. The floating gel could be deployed above the Great Barrier Reef to save coral by shading and reaction with carbon dioxide to make ocean less acidic. Along the coast excess nutrients added by sewage, etc, can stimulate the growth of algae. Algal blooms can contribute to acidification because when algae die the decomposing releases carbon dioxide directly into the water, resulting in acidification of the sea. Floating gel with the rock dust in could react with the more acid water.
    The floating rock gel would enhance warming of surface waters and increase rainfall chances if done on a massive scale. Heating of surface waters would release more CO2 because gases dissolve less easily in hotter water. The rock dust could then react with the CO2.
    Used along the coast, dark rock dust would help evaporate water from waves, by heating up (low albedo).
    The rock is mainly peridotite and peridotite contains iron and iron stimulates phytoplankton growth. So could we stimulate growth of phytoplankton and neutralize the carbon dioxide formed by decomposition of the phytoplankton? It could go as follows:
    The iron in the peridotite will stimulate phytoplankton growth. Phytoplankton will consume carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and will then die and move it to marine sediments in the deep ocean via the well known “biological pump” process. The carbon dioxide generated from decomposition of phytoplankton could react with the peridotite and thus also be removed.

  • commented on 5 reasons the Arctic’s extremely warm winter should alarm you... 2018-03-18 02:43:44 -0700
    Oil and gas companies continue to explore. I can see only one way and that is to grow plants in desert regions to soak up carbon dioxide. I present a number of rain enhancement ideas at my profile page Lima could grow more with rain enhancement. I think it will work. Cape Town has a problem that is a little similar to that in Lima in Peru. The sea is fairly cold, so air that blows to land is cold and does not rise. If you look at RH the RH is often 80% or so in Lima, but the cold air makes the air stable and air from the sea does not rise. If you heated it it could. The average RH for the year in Lima is a very high 83% but rainfall is very low. I was interested to note that in 1998 sea temperatures near Lima increased from the usual 18 deg C or so (see Wikipedia on Lima) to around 26 deg C and that year heavy flooding in Peru was reported (ño-floods-situation-report-no5). Lima Peru has a problem in that the air is stable and moist air from the sea in not hot enough to rise and cause convectional rain. If you use plastic greenhouse sheeting to cover suitable areas you can heat a huge amount of air.
    Ordinary glass is transparent to solar radiation of up to about 3 microns in wavelength. Now it happens that, after the atmosphere has filtered out some radiation from the sun, practically all solar radiation that falls onto the ground is radiation of 0.3 to 2.5 microns in wavelength. Therefore practically all solar radiation enters through the glass and heats up objects inside the glass structure. If a dark body is heated up inside the structure and reaches a temperature of 60 deg C, then over 96% of the radiation from that dark body is radiation of more than 3 microns and cannot get out through the glass. Greenhouse plastic is similar to glass.
    So if people make wire cages with dark material (gauze and so on) in and wrap greenhouse plastic around and place these structures in the yard you will heat air in them and create a “convection city” that will enhance convectional rain. For free calculations people can contact me via
    If the authorities cover suitable areas (bare hills and so on) with greenhouse plastic a few metres above the ground they will heat huge quantities of air and the air will become unstable and the chances of rain will be increased.
    Example: Say air from the ocean blows to land and the temperature of the air is 25 deg C. Suppose relative humidity (RH) is 75%. Let atmospheric pressure be 1 atm. Suppose 3 kWh of solar energy falls on every square metre in a day. My calculations give me that the volumetric heat capacity of air under these conditions is 1.197 kJ per cubic metre per deg C. Using the greenhouse plastic a square metre of ground could heat 1003 cubic metres above it by 9 deg C. This is using only 1 square metre of ground under greenhouse plastic. There will be heat losses to ground and so on, but you can heat a huge amount of air with a large area covered by greenhouse plastic. Just as cool roofs reduce rainfall, so greenhouse plastic will increase rainfall. See

  • commented on The financial costs and consequences of the escalating global warming emergency... 2018-03-15 02:03:16 -0700
    There is often need for drying facilities – see
    To reduce evaporation from dams throughout the world and provide drying facilities one could use a heat pump powered by wind power or solar to extract heat from the dams and pump the heat into the air in a drying facility nearby. Heat pumps are very efficient (COP = about 4). Imagine you have a 1 MW facility and it can provide 3 MW of heating of air.
    Suppose air must be heated 20 deg C. Let the air have temperature of 22 deg C and relative humidity of 50% with pressure of 1 atmosphere. Then my calculations give that the volumetric heat capacity of the air is 1.207 kJ per deg C for 1 cubic metre of air and the 3 MW can heat 447386 cubic metres of air by 20 deg C in one hour.
    Eddie Miller

    If you have dark rocky mountains nearby you could do this to increase rainfall: If you just draped greenhouse plastic sheeting above the rocks you would heat a lot of air that could rise to produce convectional rain. At this time of year, on a square metre of horizontal surface you can heat over 2200 cubic metres of air by 10 deg C in a day if it is sunny. Imagine if you had 1 square km of greenhouse sheeting draped above the rocks – you could theoretically heat over 2 cubic kilometres of air by 10 deg C each day. Allow for heat losses and it might be a lot less, but still a huge amount. The volumetric heat capacity of air is about 1.2 kJ per deg C per cubic metre (it takes about 1.2 kJ of solar energy to heat 1 cubic metre by 1 deg C or 12 kJ to heat a cubic metre by 10 deg C). At this time of year, each sunny day, about 7,5 kWh of solar energy falls on each horizontal sq metre (this is 3600 × 7.5 kJ). If you want calculations on how much you must heat the air for clouds to form, just give me air temperature and relative humidity so I can calculate convective temperature (if I am not overwhelmed by requests). Also see

  • commented on WE CAN’T ENGINEER OUR WAY OUT OF CLIMATE CHANGE... 2018-02-25 03:15:56 -0800
    I believe we can engineer our way out of climate change, contrary to the sentiments of your article. See

  • commented on SOME OF THE WORLD'S BIGGEST LAKES ARE DRYING UP. HERE'S WHY... 2018-02-21 03:23:35 -0800
    Greenhouses to supply moist air to regions could be used. See for diagrams.
    For Example, could we supply moist air to trees around the Qattara Depression by means of upward air convection in a long greenhouse? Suppose the greenhouse were at sea level.
    ORIGINAL AIR: Consider air at temperature 28 deg C and with relative humidity (RH) of 55%.
    FINAL AIR: The original air is heated and humidified in a greenhouse with seawater in. The final temperature is 40 deg C and the relative humidity is 85%
    CALCULATIONS: The original air has 14.96 grams of water vapour in per cubic metre. The final air has 43.42 grams of water vapour in per cubic metre (28.46 grams more).
    The original air would have to be heated to 45.02 deg C to have the same density as the final air. By adding moisture the density of the final air has been decreased more than just heating it.
    CONCLUSION: The final air is significantly less dense than than the original air and will rise by natural convection in a long greenhouse.
    NOTE: The original air has a density of 1163.2 grams per cubic metre. The final air has a density of 1101.0 grams per cubic metre. If you heated the original air to a temperature of 45.02 deg C its relative humidity would drop to 21.67% and its density would be 1101.0 grams per cubic metre.

  • commented on WE’RE WITNESSING THE FASTEST DECLINE IN ARCTIC SEA ICE IN AT LEAST 1,500 YEARS... 2018-02-19 03:07:42 -0800
    Arab Finance and Korea are planning an agricultural city in the Qattara Depression. This sort of initiative could soak up carbon dioxide – see The project will use greenhouses and if implemented in the whole of Africa it could help. See also

  • commented on WHY CAPE TOWN IS RUNNING OUT OF WATER, AND WHO’S NEXT... 2018-02-05 02:02:28 -0800
    Bulldoze shallow ponds along the coast that fill with seawater and then cover the ponds with greenhouse plastic sheeting. Shallow water heats up fast and the greenhouse will plastic will cause it to heat more. As to feasibility, to vaporize one litre of water at 35 deg C requires about 2420 kJ of solar energy (the energy reduces as temperature increases). Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, in one day at this time of year, receive about 8 kwh of solar energy on a square metre of horizontal surface. It works out that this 8kWh could evaporate about 11.9 litres of water, so if your greenhouse pond has an area of 100m by 100m you can evaporate a theoretical maximum of 119000 litres in a day to add to the atmosphere. In studies of air pollution, in coastal cities, it was found that sea and land breezes move the pollution back and forth. In a similar manner, humidification would build up every day, because of evaporation in the ponds, and humid air would be moved back and forth from sea to land increasing chances of rain.

  • commented on HOW ENGINEERING EARTH’S CLIMATE COULD SERIOUSLY IMPERIL LIFE... 2018-01-24 03:43:05 -0800
    The idea will cause ground to heat up less, which will cause less convectional rain and reduce cloud cover, and this will increase global warming, because clouds generally have a cooling effect on Earth. See

  • commented on ANTARTICA: THE GREAT CRACK-UP... 2018-01-23 03:32:08 -0800
    When there are a lot of cracks the sun will heat up the ice more due to the “canyon effect” (sunlight is trapped in the cracks).

  • commented on WE MUST STOP THIS! TRUMP PLANS TO OPEN NEARLY ALL U.S. WATERS TO DRILLING... 2018-01-06 03:21:13 -0800
    People could approach oil companies to ask them to implement rain enhancement. Then they will be able to compensate to some extent. It could be a win win situation with them gaining some credibility. Perhaps they will want to show corporate responsibility. At present drought and consequent fires are putting many tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Oil companies could reduce this by employing rain enhancement methods. See also California fires and drought Oil companies might be able to reduce CO2 buildup despite their activities if they could finance rain enhancement to reduce the huge fires. In fact I have already approached oil companies, but more numbers are needed. Could someone perhaps organise a petition to oil companies? I will sign it. I figure that President Trump is suppoting oil and gas jobs, so the best is to work with oil companies for the present. Oil companies could generate spray over the sea with floating spray pumps to increase humidity and rain: AMOUNT OF WATER VAPOUR IN THE AIR:
    If you want to find out how much water the air holds in 1 cubic metre, given temperature and relative humidity, you can use Note that grams per cubic metre is the same as kilograms per 1000 cubic metres. Now 1000 cubic metres represents a volume with base of 1 square metre and a height of 1 km. So if the table says 5 g per cubic metre, then there are 5 kg of water in a column of air with base of 1 square metre and height of 1 km.
    Example: Tair=30 deg C. RH=30%. How much water vapour must be added to a column of air with base of 1 square metre and height 1000m to increase RH from 30% to 80%. Answer: From the table the answer is 24.3-9.1=15.2 kg. On one square metre on a hot day about 7 or 8 kg of water can be evaporated

    If all suitable Arctic regions used heat pumps powered by wind power to extract heat from the oceans and pump it into greenhouses to grow food on a massive and all other cities in the world used heat pumps to extract heat and heat water in greenhouses to humidify air and so on it would help a little.

    Looking at relative humidities I note they are often low. As I have said before, spray pumps over the sea will increase RH. See

  • commented on CALIFORNIA FIRE: RESIDENT SAYS NEIGHBORHOOD LOOKS LIKE 'WAR ZONE'... 2017-12-18 05:30:45 -0800
    As I have said, billions are being paid out in insurance claims. Why not take a few billion and put spray pumps on the sea to humidify and create more rain. Relative humidities have been low, drying out vegetation. For details see

  • commented on HOW GLOBAL WARMING FUELED FIVE EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS... 2017-12-16 03:33:57 -0800
    Spray over the sea prevents solar energy from entering the sea and could cool Arctic waters and so on. See my groups and and also my blog
    Floating spray pumps are an answer to drought, fires, global warming. Such things as melting of ice could be dealt with.

    I say we should use rain enhancement methods in deserts and grow palm oil trees there to soak up carbon dioxide – see and for rain enhancement methods.

  • commented on THE OCEANS ARE GETTING MORE ACIDIC...HERE'S WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW... 2017-12-02 03:34:19 -0800
    A large desert area in Africa could be used along with rain enhancement to grow trees in the deserts. I have drawn graphs at

    These show that many, if not practically all coastal cities and areas along arid coastlines could be used to create rain and grow trees (palm oil trees to make money?). These trees would take up carbon dioxide.

  • commented on ONE NATION, TWO TRIBES: OPPOSING VISIONS OF US CLIMATE ROLE ON SHOW IN BONN... 2017-11-11 05:59:10 -0800
    In Arctic regions, put solar air heaters on dark rocks to create convection and convcectional rain (high albedo snowfall). See also

  • commented on WE HAVE NOW ENTERED THE STATE OF IRREVERSIBLE GLOBAL WARMING! 2017-11-01 02:53:30 -0700
    Increase cloud cover and rain to cool Earth. Low clouds in low latitudes cool Earth: The wind speed is low just over the ocean (as it is just above the ground). There is therefore a fairly stagnant layer with very high relative humidity just above the sea. If one used thousands of floating devices as shown below one could increase moisture in the air so that air blowing to land would produce more rain. Water has a very high emissivity (about 0.95), so the greenhouse plastic will keep in a lot of radiation from the sea surface. For high sea surface temperatures of 30 deg C or so, the greenhouse will keep in about 450 W per square metre of infrared radiation from the sea surface.
    The light portion of the solar energy passing through the greenhouse plastic will enter quite deep into the ocean. The infrared portion entering the greenhouse will be absorbed within the uppermost few centimetres of the sea surface. Any infrared radiation from the sea that is reflected back to the sea by the greenhouse plastic will also be absorbed in the upper few centimetres of the sea. The result will almost certainly be a heating of the sea surface under the greenhouse plastic, enhancing evaporation and high humidity. See for the diagram of the apparatus.

    Some global warming comes from methane from landfills: Reduce greenhouse gases (methane, etc) from landfills: Turn landfill sites into solar updraft tower sites for power: Saw on 50|50 that there were problems with the Enviroserv landfill emitting smelly gases at the Durban site. Why not cover the site with transparent greenhouse plastic sheeting a few metres above the ground and collect the gas under the plastic and feed it into a tower where it can be flared? A large updraft will be formed and the flared gases will disperse high up. See The gases will be heated by flaring and the greenhouse effect if transparent greenhouse plastic is used above the landfill. The system will simulate a solar updraft tower. Solar updraft towers can increase convectional rain.