Why will half of humanity perish by mid-century from climate change-related consequences, even if we make the CORRECT global fossil fuel reductions? Welcome to Garrett's Climate Change Dilemma

Last updated 3.4.24. 

The climate facts below are not for individuals under 16 years old. These serious adult matters and climate problems are far too upsetting and complex for children under 16 to understand or deal with in healthy or rational ways.


Our independent, 100% publicly funded climate change think tank has predicted that about half of humanity will perish from climate change-related consequences by about mid-century. This prediction was made after extensive research and analysis using climate change research-related materials and methods described here. The article and links below describe in detail the climate science and math behind why half of humanity is already lost.  

This climate change and human extinction information is upsetting for most people. Therefore, at the end of this article, we have also provided links to a comprehensive climate preparation, adaptation, resilience, relocation, and recovery plan to help you manage all aspects of the following awful climate change news.

We do not expect you to believe the following blindly. At the end of this article, we have provided additional documentation links for how we came to the conclusions of the climate change dilemma you find below.

Garret's Climate Change Dilemma

The following is Garret's Climate Change Dilemma. It contains the most critical immediate decision which faces every politician and every government concerning the most critical actions that must be taken to survive the climate change extinction emergency.

Here is Garret's climate change dilemma in two simple questions (a and b below). Ask yourself which decision you would make. How would you choose when the world's future is truly at stake? (The painful climate science behind Professor Garret's climate change dilemma will be explained fully in the article below.)

Would you:

a. immediately enforce radically reducing current global fossil fuels usage to meet the correct 2025 global fossil fuel reduction targets? 

This action would still cause half of humanity to die off by mid-century from starvation and other climate-related causes, and also cause a severe global economic collapse. But, it would prevent the near-total human extinction and massive economic and political collapse between 2050-2070.

Or would you: 

b. Not radically reduce fossil fuels to meet the correct 2025 global fossil fuel reduction targets so you could prevent severe economic collapse now?

In this decision scenario, you know that half of humanity will still die off by mid-century because of existing and locked in future climate change consequences by and of themselves. But you also know that ONLY by making the required 2025 global fossil fuel reduction targets immediately, you maintain the only remaining way to save as much as possible of the other post-2050 surviving half of humanity and prevent near-total human extinction and economic and political collapse post-2050.

Take a moment to consider all of the consequences for each decision in this dilemma and what you would do and what you think our politicians will do.

What this dilemma also highlights and means is that our politicians and governments must act now to get close to the 2025 global fossil fuel reduction targets to save the post-2050 climate change surviving half of humanity because there is nothing we can do at this late point to prevent the loss of about half of humanity before 2050, which is due to already existing and unavoidable climate change consequences. This means our politicians immediately must make climate change and fossil fuel reduction decisions that will be intensely unpopular to save the half of humanity that is still salvageable, or they can do nothing, protect their current salaries and privileges and let most of humanity perish post-2050. What do you think our courageous politicians will do?

Yes, this is quite a dilemma. Our politicians can do nothing anymore to save about half of humanity because of their past incompetence and the momentum of existing climate change consequences that can no longer be stopped. Radically cutting global fossil fuel usage to get close to the 2025 targets is the only thing that can save the other half of humanity.

But in doing that, the half of humanity already doomed from our politician's past inaction and accelerating climate change consequences will perish even sooner from the sudden reduction in global fossil fuel use. Even though half of humanity will die either slower or faster before about 2050, depending on either our politician's actions or inaction before 2025, it is not likely our politicians will take the immediate and radical fossil fuel reduction actions needed to save the other half of humanity. It is too easy for them to do nothing, keep enjoying their salary and benefits, and believe because they are politicians, their governments will protect them and their families as a top priority as the climate chaos grows.

To add insult to injury, Garret's Climate Change Dilemma was completely avoidable. It is due to our politicians and governments doing nothing effective over the previous 60 years to fix climate change when global fossil fuel reductions could have been gradual and far less painful. Furthermore, this governmental ineffectiveness is because of history's largest and most expensive disinformation campaign. This greed-fueled campaign was targeted at our politicians and carefully orchestrated by the global fossil fuel cartel, the world's largest and richest industry.

Yes, this is a huge shock to take in, but it will be explained in Garret's science and math below. (If you are not sure why half of humanity will unavoidably perish by about 2050 because of existing and locked in future climate change consequences by and of themselves if we miss the 2025 global fossil fuel reduction targets by a lot, please click here to confirm this is humanity's greatest climate change dilemma.)



Be aware that Garrett's Climate Dilemma will be a dominant reason for the extinction of about half of humanity by mid-century if we miraculously make the 2025 global fossil fuel reductions. But, it will not be the only reason. As runaway global heating worsens, the many other primary and secondary runaway global heating consequences will come into play, killing off even larger portions of humanity both before and after 2050.

As described below in Garett's Dilemma, the required rapid and enforced global fossil fuel reduction will create a global economic collapse, and the collapse of global civilization will also equal a global population collapse and the mass extinction of about half of humanity by mid-century.

This collapse and extinction process is because:

1. Global mass food production is mainly based on fossil fuels at many levels (fertilizers, farm equipment fuel, and transporting food to markets.)

2. Because of our government's 60-year delay in acting on climate change, there is now a long chain of unavoidable climate and extinction-related consequences, crossed tipping points, and feedbacks described here, which will ensure the human population is drastically reduced and that we experience widespread global collapse. And, if everything goes wrong and we never really fix runaway global heating, we will experience near-total collapse and near-total extinction. (Near-total extinction means that 50 to 90+ percent or more of humanity could die, but all of humanity will not go extinct for the reasons discussed on this page.



The Science Behind Garrett's Climate Change Dilemma and the Runaway Global Heating Emergency

Tim Garrett, professor of Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Utah, has researched the physics of atmospheric thermodynamic change (changing air temperatures) over the history of human civilization. His unsettling research indicates the only workable way left in which to avoid irreversible runaway global warming and its unthinkable extinction-level consequences will involve allowing our fossil fuel-driven global economy to collapse. 

To be clear, irreversible global warming and climate change means that we will not be able to get the dangerous levels of excess greenhouse gases (like carbon) out of our atmosphere and back down to a normal and human-safe pre-industrial level for hundreds to thousands of years. (As of July 2023, We are currently at the insane atmospheric carbon level of 420 ppm. We will soon enter the generally considered irreversible and second phase of runaway global heating sometime between 2025-2031. This is when we enter into the carbon 425-450 ppm range.)

Garret's research shows that the laws of physics predict that we will have to go into an immediate economic recession or depression to save the future from irreversible, runaway global warming and ourselves from extinction. Most of us are not economists, physicists, or climatologists, so this lesson may seem a little difficult to understand. The following summary of Garrett’s research should help:

  1. The core finding of his research is that maintaining only our current levels of economic production and wealth requires continual energy sustenance and supply. Like a living organism, civilization requires energy not only to grow but also to continue to sustain and maintain its current size or wealth.

  2. In today’s terms, this also means that any additional economic production (wealth) equals more carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels. Conversely, fewer carbon emissions from less fossil fuel burning equals less economic production (wealth).

  3. The fixed and direct link between energy sustenance and the additional production of more wealth means that the existence of a financially measurable and viable economy cannot be decoupled from a continuing rise in its energy consumption.

  4. This means that contrary to current popular global heating prediction theories, neither population size nor the population’s standard of living has to be included in the computer modeling for the predictions on what will happen in the future with a growing or shrinking economy and the amount of carbon dioxide that will go into the atmosphere affecting global warming. (Garrett's realization was that global warming is directly linked closely to the increased or decreased carbon levels of increased or decreased Gross Domestic Product [GDP].)

  5. Global atmospheric carbon dioxide emission rates conversely also cannot be unlinked from economic production (wealth) through new or predicted gains in energy efficiency. Greater energy efficiency does not invalidate Garrett’s research demonstrating that greater production (wealth) always equals greater atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions. Also, to consider here are the reverse conservation effects of Jevons’ Paradox.

  6. According to Garrett’s research, even a 50% reduction in total fossil fuel use over the next 50 years will not be enough to keep us below carbon 425-450 ppmv. [See footnote 96.] (425-450 ppmv is of itself a very unsafe level.) Even with this 50% reduction, we will still hit 600 ppmv by the year 2100 (or sooner) and pass three of the four final extinction-triggering climate tipping points. See this page to understand what 450-500 ppmv or 600 ppmv will mean to your future. (Job One has this plan to keep us from crossing this mass extinction dangerous carbon 425-450 ppm level. (Click here for more information on the nightmare we create for ourselves when we cross the 425-450 ppm range, which is the first extinction-triggering tipping point.) 

  7. Keeping carbon emissions at or below the already unsafe level of carbon 450 ppmv will not be achieved by any conservation, increased energy efficiency, or other gradual fossil fuel reduction tactics currently being implemented. To maintain our current standard of living with our growing population without further exacerbating global warming, a new, non-carbon polluting nuclear power plant would have to be built every day. Because this is not currently happening and, in fact, is impossible (even if it was a desirable solution), the only remaining solution to radically reducing fossil fuel use is economic collapse.

  8. For atmospheric CO2 concentrations to remain below 450 ppmv, Garrett’s research suggests there will have to be some combination of an unrealistically rapid rate of energy decarbonization (reduction of fossil fuel use) and its consequent and near-immediate reductions in global wealth. Effectively, it appears that civilization may be in a double-bind dilemma. If civilization does not collapse quickly this century, then CO2 levels will likely end up exceeding 1000 ppmv. At the same time, if CO2 levels exceed 1,000 ppmv, [See footnote 97.] then civilization will gradually tend toward total collapse. (For more about Garrett’s research on the physics of long-run global economic growth issues, click here.   Click here to see the many detailed primary and secondary climate and other consequences that will bring about the collapse of civilization much sooner than 2100, long before carbon 1,000 ppmv is reached.   [See footnote 98.]) 

  9. Garrett also does not envision that our governments and politicians will ever be able to reduce carbon emissions fast enough. In his paper “No Way Out,” [See footnote 99.], he says that “reducing carbon emissions may be a bit like asking an adult to once again become a child. Over millennia, we have collectively built an enormous global infrastructure designed to consume massive amounts of energy. Without destroying this infrastructure, energy will continue to be consumed. Without energy, the circulations and transactions defining the global economy stop. And because so much of this infrastructure is tied to fossil fuel consumption, our economy is wedded to carbon emissions.”

  10. Although it is counter-intuitive, Garrett also states energy consumption rates can rise about twice as fast with rapid decarbonization (fossil fuel use reductions) as with no decarbonization. The reason is that decarbonization aids society's health by limiting global warming. Better health means greater energy consumption, which then leads to a partial offset of any environmental gains that came from decarbonizing in the first place. (Going green is a form of global decarbonization.)

  11. In addition to the many Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes (IPCC) errors described on this page, Garrett also turned his new prediction model on the IPCC’s global warming predictions and discovered two major errors. He demonstrated that the IPCC’s current global warming prediction scenarios substantially underestimate how much carbon dioxide levels will rise for a given level of future economic prosperity and wealth. The two reasons for the IPCC errors are that global carbon dioxide emission rates cannot be unlinked from economic production and wealth creation through any efficiency gains the IPCC uses, and our continuous future global warming can be expected to act as a significant inflationary drag on the real growth of wealth. Because neither of these two essential economic factors was properly accounted for within previous IPCC prediction scenarios, the IPCC has, once again, substantially underestimated the relationship of projected future increased prosperity to increased carbon dioxide levels. By forwarding this rosy and false belief that economic prosperity can be maintained while dramatically reducing fossil fuel use, it seems the IPCC was trying to “have its cake and eat it too.” These serious miscalculations by the IPCC mean their predictions are even more unreliable than has been disclosed on this website here and in Chapter 7 of the new Climageddon book. This also means most of the world has no idea how bad the current global warming emergency really is or that to solve it, we will have to go through a massive global economic downturn. 



Garrett does give us some hope in his research for a possible solution when he mentions that if civilization’s ability to adapt to rising global warming and its consequences is extremely low, “...then only a combination of rapid civilization collapse and high decarbonization comes close to achieving a 450 ppmv goal.” [See footnote 100.] (Here, rapid civilization collapse refers directly to the rapid reduction of all fossil fuel use.)

Garrett’s unsettling research can also suggest that the only remaining possible way that we may be able to maintain or go below the carbon 450 ppmv target [See footnote 101.] to avoid irreversible runaway global warming and keep our economy going fairly well is:

    sudden and drastic global fossil fuel use reductions, and simultaneously all,
  • nations immediately and fully switch to non-carbon-dioxide-emitting green power generation sources. (Neither of which is currently happening, and according to the new MIT research, we will not be able to scale up green energy generation anywhere close to the timeframe needed.)

It appears Garrett may not believe our governments and politicians currently have either the technical ability and/or the political will to enact the painful solution to replace our fossil fuel energy consumption in time to avoid the worst consequences of runaway global warming. He states that “as the current climate system is tied directly to its unchangeable past, any substantial near-term departure from recently observed acceleration in carbon dioxide emission rates is highly unlikely.”

“Anyone wishing to see what is to come should examine what has been.” —Machiavelli

This creates a real double-blind dilemma. If our governments and politicians can't scale up a full global green energy generation replacement in time while we are also making all of the required global fossil fuel reductions, the steep crash of the global economy will financially destroy us. If we continue as we are now, and civilization does not collapse quickly (within this century), carbon dioxide levels will likely exceed carbon 600-1,000 ppmv and condemn us to the last near-total extinction phases of runaway global warming.

Assuming Tim Garrett’s research is correct about how the gross world product (GWP) and civilization’s accumulated wealth is intrinsically and directly linked to the total carbon levels present in the atmosphere, without building a nuclear reactor every day, or fully scaling up global green energy generation to replace all global fossil fuel reductions, (both of which are impossible) our only remaining solution is to let the economy crash in stages now or completely collapse later, bringing most of the civilization down with it.

Ethically, this is a simple choice, but it is a logistic and political nightmare. How do our governments and politicians educate the people of the world that to save the future and future generations, they must now expect less, have less, and be less economically comfortable? How do our politicians get us to understand that we now have to sacrifice the lives of half of humanity so the other half may survive with our making radical fossil fuel cuts? How do our politicians get us to understand that if we don't make the painful cuts now, half of humanity will still perish by 2025, AND most of the other half of humanity will also perish? 

In a world that has already conditioned us to demand and expect more, the message that we must all make painful sacrifices for the survival of future generations and civilization will be a very hard sell. This educational task might be nearly impossible because it requires a degree of personal maturity to delay immediate self-gratification for a collective reward in the future. It is completely unrealistic to think most people will voluntarily make the required and painful sacrifices without enforcement by the world's governments.  

Very few individuals, non-profit ecological organizations, corporations, or nations are ready to hear this tough runaway global heating solution message, much less act upon the drastic 2025 global fossil fuel reductions we now need to make. But this is exactly what we all need to hear, begin discussing, and start preparing for and doing to survive. 

Although many new jobs and businesses will be created by transferring to green energy generation, these new sources of revenue will not protect the economy from the loss of old fossil fuel industry-related jobs and businesses. As we ride out the coming economic hardships and transition from reliance on fossil fuel energy generation to green or other safer energy generation, we will have to learn somehow to accept these harsh financial and other realities.

There is both bad news and good news in Garrett’s research. The bad news is that if our governments and politicians don't radically reduce fossil fuel use at an exponentially rapid rate (as described in the correct 2025 global fossil fuel reduction targets), which currently sustains a viable rising economy, our atmospheric carbon ppm concentrations will continue to rise. We will continue moving toward the later near-total extinction phases of runaway global warming.

This mass die-off is primarily because modern agriculture completely depends on fossil fuel fertilizers and equipment running on fossil fuels. When these items are no longer available, we will be unable to produce nearly enough food for our ballooning global population. 

Here again, is the political dilemma. If our governments and politicians do not cut global fossil fuel use to get close to the 2025 targets, we will begin to experience many of the primary and secondary consequences described on this page, and about 50% of the global population will die by mid-century. If our governments and politicians do cut global fossil fuel use to get close to the 2025 targets, about 50% of the global population still dies by mid-century due to the collapse of fossil fuel-driven modern agriculture.

The good news is that we can eventually secure a prosperous economy and a safe future if we persuade our politicians to realize there will be no possible long-term economic prosperity or a future for about 50-90+% of humanity without immediate and radical fossil fuel reductions and the other government actions described on this page.

In summary, Garrett's research points toward the unbearable idea that the short-term collapse of our economy and the death of about 50% of the world's population due to the loss of fossil fuels) by about mid-century may become a required action if we are going to save ourselves from an unthinkable global warming catastrophe. If you still don't believe this is valid and you are scientifically minded, take a look at Garrett’s paper called “No Way Out. [See footnote 102.] (Be sure to go to the end of his study after the references and also look at his many prediction graphs.)



We are caught in a terrible transitional energy, economy, and survival dilemma. Because there is no quick global green or other energy generation transitional fix, the only way out is that our governments and politicians must drastically cut fossil fuel use now, and we will suffer severe financial hardship and a massive loss of life. If our governments and politicians don't drastically cut fossil fuel use now, we will suffer far greater than just financial hardship in the too near future. If our governments and politicians do not get close to the 2025 fossil fuel reduction targets, we will experience not just the loss of about half of humanity by mid-century, we will experience near-total human extinction (as much as 50 - 90+% of humanity.)

If the economy is going to have to go into a steep recession or depression no matter what to save us, it is wiser to get the needed painful changes out of the way as quickly as possible and save the future for our children and future generations.


Other Key Facts and Observations

  1. As of 1.9.23, our governments and politicians are currently not making anything even close to the required radical cuts in fossil fuel use to reduce the carbon going into our atmosphere to prevent massive global temperature increases, horrendous climate calamities, and far sooner than imagined extinction. A 2017 research paper in Science, lead-authored by Johan Rockström, director of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, concluded that global carbon emissions would have to be cut in half by 2020, then cut in half again by 2030 and then cut in half again each decade out to 2050 to keep us safe. This means that In order for us to keep global temperature anywhere even close to levels where most of humanity can survive, fossil fuel emissions need to be slashed by about 75 percent by 2030, and by nearly 95 percent by 2050 to stay within a safe climate zone. (Please see the correct 2025 global fossil fuel reductions here. The 2017 study did not account for all needed fossil fuel reductions.)
  2. To grasp how difficult these cuts will be, imagine that in the next three years, you personally will have to cut all of your home, auto, and business uses of fossil fuels by 50%, then cut another 50% from that point within the next 10 years and then cut another 50% in each of the following decades. Citizens of the world who did not fully understand both the urgency and importance of why they needed to make these radical, immediate, and painful sacrifices would literally throw out any politician or even overthrow governments who tried to enforce these kinds of radical energy and fossil fuel usage cuts to their current comfortable or subsistence lifestyles and livelihoods. 
  3. It is highly improbable our governments and politicians will ever make the critically needed cuts to our fossil fuel use. There are several reasons for this. One is that each year we delay making these needed radical fossil fuel usage cuts means that any future cuts will need to be even more extreme, which makes them even less likely to be done because of the even worse immediate hardship they will impose globally. Secondly, because of Professor Garrett's Global Warming Dilemma, which you have read in the article above.
  4. In addition to Garrett's dilemma, humanity is also facing many severe and unavoidable climate consequences that will also act to reduce the human population by mid-century. Click here to read about the other climate-related consequences that make the extinction of about half of humanity by mid-century unavoidable. 
  5. The above page helps explain why about half of humanity will perish by about 2050. Please remember that the climate change consequences described below are not only destructive by themselves.

    Most climate change consequences described below will also interact with and amplify other interconnected climate change consequence areas. Then, these interacting secondary climate change areas will also experience amplification of their related climate change consequences. This is the scary escalating feedback cycle of climate change consequences interacting and amplifying each other. This interaction and amplification feedback cycle is one of the most unseen, unrecognized, and dangerous parts of our climate change nightmare and emergency.

  6. Well before we reach humanity's predicted climate change-driven mass extinction by about 2050, the likelihood that humanity will destroy itself near-totally in much larger multi-regional or global conflicts before 2050 is exceptionally high. Here's why. After we have crossed our last chance atmospheric carbon 450 ppm threshold and tipping point, humanity's mass extinction by about 2050 will be driven mainly by starvation, mass migrations, and localized conflicts. But there is also an exceptionally high probability of much larger conflicts occurring due to climate change's many accelerating secondary consequences. 

These secondary consequences include intensifying smaller-scale localized resource conflicts, which will also create much larger-scale national, international, and global conflicts.

The many extinction-accelerating secondary consequences of climate change are described fully about 1/2 way down this page. We strongly recommend reading the secondary consequences of climate change because it will help you to viscerally and intimately understand climate change's secondary consequence-driven coming suffering and death. 

(Click here also to learn why human extinction by about 2050-2070 might be only near-total extinction, not the far worse total extinction, but only if we do not keep our atmospheric carbon levels below the carbon 450 parts per million. level.)


But there is still hope and many things you can do to help create a better world.

Click here to go to our comprehensive climate preparation, adaptation, resilience, relocation, and recovery plan, which will help protect and preserve your loved ones and assets.

Click here if you are a victim of climate change damage or loss and you want to get financial and other forms of restitution for the damages you have suffered.



1. Garrett's Climate Dilemma will be a dominant reason for the extinction of about half of humanity by mid-century. But, by no means will it be the only reason. As runaway global heating worsens, the many other primary and secondary runaway global heating consequences will come into play, killing off large portions of humanity.

2. Our ineffective governments squandered 60-plus years when they could have gradually fixed climate change. The price of that grossly negligent governmental and political inaction is now the unavoidable deaths of about half of humanity by about 2050 from climate change-related consequences. Because our politicians do not want to be blamed for their gross negligence and incompetence in protecting us, they will do everything they can to continue to claim complete ignorance of Garret's Climate Change Dilemma.

2. Sooner or later, our politicians will decide to radically cut global fossil fuel use by enforcing rationing simply because the outcome of not doing so would be unthinkable, and nothing else has worked for 60 years. This means that you, your family, and your business must get busy with your Plan B preparations and adaptations and decide for yourselves which half of humanity you will fall.

3. (Click here for more information on the nightmare our governments and politicians will create for everyone when we cross the 425-450 ppm range, which is the first extinction-triggering tipping point.) 

4. Now you know why the global fossil fuel cartel desperately wants you never to discover Garret's climate change dilemma. Once you understand how they have distorted and hidden critical climate change information from our governments and humanity for over 60 years, you will clearly see that they are legally, financially, and criminally responsible for all the destruction, financial loss, and deaths their intentional climate change misinformation actions and products have caused.

5. If we miss the 2025 global fossil fuel reduction targets by a lot, about half of humanity will unavoidably perish by about 2050 because of existing and locked-in future climate change consequences by and of themselves. This unfortunate fact is the other half of Garrett's Climate Change Dilemma and creates humanity's greatest climate change dilemma.


Key Additional Documentation and Information to Help You Understand the Horrible and Unconscionable Consequences of a Still Unresolved Garret's Climate Change Dilemma

We invite you to examine the links below and decide if our climate change prediction is rational, climate science-based, and accurate. Here are the links to review in the order given:

a. The four climate change extinction-accelerating tipping points.

b. The many processes and steps for how the primary and secondary climate change-related consequences will accelerate and both cumulatively and synergistically interact with each other and feed into each other to eventually cause the deaths of about 1/2 of humanity by mid-century.

c. Within the next several decades or possibly much sooner, the sudden collapse of the Thwaites Doomsday glacier. This one climate tipping point will greatly accelerate the mass die-off for the many reasons discussed in the article.

d. The painful political challenge of Garret's Climate Change Dilemma. (This dilemma is discussed further down this page.)

It is also very helpful to learn more about the 11 major climate change tipping points to understand more about the many factors pushing humanity over the climate change cliff toward mass human extinction by mid-century.


Here is the necessary counter-balancing good news after reading about Garret's Climate Change Dilemma

Why ALL of humanity will most likely not die from climate change-related consequences (only about half of humanity will die.)

Click here to go to our comprehensive climate preparation, adaptation, resilience, relocation, and recovery plan, which will help protect and preserve your loved ones and assets as this mess unfolds.

Click Here Now if You Are Ready to Vote if the Global Fossil fuel Cartel is Guilty of Causing Climate change and Financially Responsible for all Climate change Loss and Damage.


Please note this article and footnotes below are from the book Climageddon which discusses the Garrett Global warming dilemma at length.

96 Note: ppmv differs from carbon parts per million (ppm and CE carbon equivalent, CO2e). The distinction is that ppmv is used to describe all trace gases found in the atmosphere, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and other pollutants, by volume.

97 Tim Garrett, interview by Alex Smith, Radio Ecoshock, October 19, 2011, transcript. http://www.ecoshock.org/downloads/climate2010/ES_Garrett_101119_LoFi.mp3

98 Tim Garrett. "The physics of long-run global economic growth." Utah.edu. 2014. http://www.inscc.utah.edu/~tgarrett/Economics/Economics.html

99 Tim Garrett. "No way out? The double-bind in seeking global prosperity alongside mitigated climate change." arXiv. January 9 2012. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1010.0428v3.pdf

100 Tim Garrett. "No way out? The double-bind in seeking global prosperity alongside mitigated climate change." arXiv. January 9 2012. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1010.0428v3.pdf

101 Note: ppmv is different from carbon parts per million ppm and CE carbon equivalent, CO2e. The distinction is that ppmv is used to describe all trace gases found in the atmosphere such as sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and other pollutants by volume.

102 Tim Garrett. "No way out? The double-bind in seeking global prosperity alongside mitigated climate change." arXiv. January 9, 2012. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1010.0428v3.pdf

If you are interested in understanding the science and analysis procedures we used to present the above information, click here for a technical expiation of our climate research process.

For answers to all of your questions about climate change and global warming, click here for our new climate change FAQ. It has over one hundred of the most asked questions and answers about climate change.

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  • Allan Pereira
    commented 2023-02-05 08:23:50 -0800
    Os combustíveis fósseis estão começando a ser substituídos por veículos elétricos. Isso pressupõe que as fontes de energia elétrica são fontes limpas. Sabemos que as fontes de energia eólica e solar são intermitentes. Então, não deveríamos estar iniciando a construção de usinas nucleares modernas e mais seguras, já que o projeto e construção destas usinas pode levar bem mais de 5 anos ?
  • Lawrence Wollersheim
    published this page in Learn 2022-08-23 15:06:41 -0700
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